Instrument Panel in Aircraft.

Learning to Fly

Learning to Fly

For information on licence privileges please refer to Schedule 8 of the Air Navigation Order. Details can also be found in CAP 804. There a great deal of students still working towards their licence that originally were aiming for a JAR or National PPL and as such may have a lot of questions re the validity of the training you have already carried out. Please seek advice from your Club, CAP 804 or the CAA.

EASA Part FCL-PPL(A)

Applicants for a EASA Part-FCL PPL(A) shall have completed at least 45 hours of flight instruction in aeroplanes, 5 of which may have been completed in an FSTD, including at least:

  • 25 hours of dual flight instruction; and
  • 10 hours of supervised solo flight time, including at least 5 hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least 1 cross-country flight of at least 270 km (150 NM), during which full stop landings at 2 aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made.

The course has to be completed at an Approved Training Organisation (ATO) and must include:

As for the ground study, there are a number of theoretical knowledge examinations you will have to pass. These are in multiple-choice format in the following subjects:

Common subjects:

  • — Air law,
  • — Human performance,
  • — Meteorology, and
  • — Communications;

Specific subjects concerning the different aircraft categories:

  • — Principles of flight,
  • — Operational procedures,
  • — Flight performance and planning,
  • — Aircraft general knowledge, and
  • — Navigation.

As a holder of a PPL, you will also have to complete a practical RT session for issue of the RT Licence that allows you to operate the voice radio equipment.

You will need to hold at least a Class 2 medical certificate issued by an Authorised Medical Examiner (AME). Your flying club will advise where your nearest AME is located.

On completion of the syllabus, and when you have achieved the necessary level of ability, you will be issued the PPL on successful completion of a Skills Test with a CAA Authorised Examiner.

EASA LAPL(A)

The holder of an EASA LAPL(A) may exercise the privileges of the licence to fly EASA aeroplanes registered in the EU and non-EASA aeroplanes registered in the UK that come within the privileges of the licence. The privileges of the holder of an LAPL for aeroplanes are to act as PIC on single engine piston aeroplanes-land or TMG with a maximum certificated take-off mass of 2000 kg or less, carrying a maximum of 3 passengers, such that there are never more than 4 persons on board of the aircraft. Holders of an LAPL(A) shall only carry passengers after they have completed, after the issuance of the licence, 10 hours of flight time as PIC on aeroplanes or TMG.

Applicants for an LAPL(A) shall have completed at least 30 hours of flight instruction on aeroplanes or TMGs, including at least:

15 hours of dual flight instruction in the class in which the skill test will be taken; 6 hours of supervised solo flight time, including at least 3 hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least 1 cross-country flight of at least 150 km (80 NM), during which 1 full stop landing at an aerodrome different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made.

Applicants for an LAPL(A) shall demonstrate a level of theoretical knowledge appropriate to the privileges granted, through examinations on the following:

common subjects:

  • — Air law,
  • — Human performance,
  • — Meteorology, and
  • — Communications;

ยท specific subjects concerning the different aircraft categories:

  • — Principles of flight,
  • — Operational procedures,
  • — Flight performance and planning,
  • — Aircraft general knowledge, and
  • — Navigation.

UK NPPL

The National Private Pilot Licence (NPPL) has been available in the UK since July 2002. More information can be found at:

The course consists of 32 hours flight time. On top of which the applicant is to pass a Navigation Skills Test and a General Skill Test. The course includes 10 hours solo flight time which in its self includes 4 hours solo 100 NM cross-country flight time and one qualifying cross-country.

The Navigation Skills Test is a minimum of one hour and must be taken prior to the qualifying cross-country flight.

The General Skills Test is also a minimum of one hour in duration.

The medical is completed by a declaration of medical fitness by the pilot. The required form has to be endorsed by a doctor with access to your medical records; basically, your GP.

Night Rating (Aeroplanes)

The Night Qualification can be completed as part of the course of training for the Part-FCL(A) or as an addition to the licence at a later date. Night is defined as 30 minutes after sunset until 30 minutes before sunrise.

The Night Qualification is carried out with a Qualified Flight Instructor who is also authorised to carry out training for the Night Qualification. There is no skills test involved but you have completed the following requirements and have demonstrated competency to the instructor:

  • 5 hours night flying that includes at least 3 hours dual instruction, which in turn includes 1 hour dual night navigation.
  • 5 solo take-offs and full stop landings at night as Pilot In Command (PIC) of an aeroplane.

Aerobatics Rating (Part-FCL Licences)

Applicants for an aerobatic rating shall have completed:

  • At least 40 hours of flight time or, in the case of sailplanes, 120 launches as PIC in the appropriate aircraft category, completed after the issue of the licence;

A training course at an ATO, including:

  • Theoretical knowledge instruction appropriate for the rating;
  • At least 5 hours or 20 flights of aerobatic instruction in the appropriate aircraft category.

The privileges of the aerobatic rating shall be limited to the aircraft category in which the flight instruction was completed. The privileges will be extended to another category of aircraft if the pilot holds a licence for that aircraft category and has successfully completed at least 3 dual training flights covering the full aerobatic training syllabus in that category of aircraft.

Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) Rating

NOTE: Endorsed as IR(Restricted) on Part-FCL Licences

In agreement with EASA, UK JAA and National licences which contained the UK IMC rating for Aeroplanes issued prior to 8 April 2014 that are converted to EASA licences will retain IMC privileges. On a Part-FCL licence the UK (IMC) appears as IR (Restricted). The revalidation/renewal requirements of the IMC Rating shall apply to all IR (Restricted) Ratings.

This is a rating that is not available to holders of a UK NPPL. Privileges of this rating can also be found in Schedule 8 of the ANO and may only be exercise in UK airspace. The training consists of 15 hours flight time following PPL issue and 20 hours (minimum) of ground study.

The course is broken down in to 2 stages:

  • Basic Stage
  • Applied Stage.

The basic stage includes, instrument attitude flying with basic flight manoeuvres on full panel, limited panel (simulated loss of the attitude indicator and gyroscopic direction finder) and partial panel (simulated loss of pitot/static instruments). The applied stage will teach you to use approach charts and let-downs to your lowest allowed heights/altitudes. Let-downs include the Instrument Landing System (ILS), Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) approaches and even Surveillance Radar Approaches (SRA) and Precision Radar Approaches (PAR) from suitably equipped airfields.

You will be required to pass a ground exam and a Skills Test with a CAA Authorised Examiner.

Privileges of the UK IMC Rating:

  • Fly outside controlled airspace in visibility less than 3km.
  • Fly special VFR in a control zone in less than 10km but not less than 3km vis.
  • Fly in Class D & E airspace IFR.
  • Fly out of sight of the surface.
  • Take-off and land in vis below cloud not less than 1800m.
  • Fly to approach minima though the UK AIP recommends and increased DH(A)/MDH(A).

Training

All the courses briefly outlined above give the minimum training requirements. The instructional hours my go beyond the required amounts depending upon the student’s aptitude, previous experience and consistency. The courses are a challenge with guaranteed satisfaction and sense of achievement. For more details information, please visit the links provided or contact your nearest flying club. Advice on reading material will be given to you by your instructor.

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